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Native in : German. Send email. Conclusions These observations might rather be influenced by altered awareness of health and illness, increasing readiness to seek help with psychological or developmental impairments as well as changed diagnostic criteria than by a steady increase in affected individuals.
Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. The Stolen Treasure of Mammoth Cave? Claire im Oktober German Edition! The main effects of group or time over-all are reported. The final study sample consisted of children at the age of 7;0 to 10; The mean age was 8.
There were 13 fourth graders 9. Children trained with the program for an average training duration of 6. Analyses regarding the mean intelligence and arithmetic scores demonstrated a high variance within the sample IQ mean T-score: Table 1. The data concerning the parent's educational level was missing for 14 children.
Table 2 summarizes the mean values and standard deviations of the mathematical performance measures before t 1 and after training or waiting period t 2 for the three groups. The initial analyses examined whether the spatial representation is better explained by a linear or logarithmic function. The regressions to the estimates of children for each of the 20 numbers that were presented were calculated for each child. A paired-sample t -test comparing the mean absolute value of residuals of the linear and of the logarithmic fit for each child was performed.
Therefore, we used R 2 lin of each child for the GLM. To get an impression of the fit of each group mean estimates were calculated separately for each training group and plotted as a function of target number Figure 2. Figure 2. Estimation patterns for the number line test 0— for the three groups. Regression functions and correlation coefficients for the linear fit mean estimates calculated for each group separately are shown before left column and after training or waiting period right column.
Table 2. Training effects mean values and standard deviations of the Calcularis group CAL , waiting group WG and spelling training group ST on arithmetic performance and spatial number representation. The spelling training group demonstrated an increase in performance while the children of the waiting group showed a decrease in performance.
The R 2 lin was determined for each child individually. Although there were no significant differences between the groups for age, we have to consider the large variation in age.
Therefore, we re-analyzed the data using age as a covariate in the GLM. Furthermore, The majority of the children rated the difficulty level of the training as appropriate Several studies demonstrate that a notable proportion of children show insufficient basic knowledge of mathematics, which is predictive for further difficulties in learning mathematics Jordan et al. Research on the development of numerical cognition and typical and atypical developmental trajectories is still in its infancy. The present article provides further insights into training approaches and mechanisms of action in order to enhance number processing and arithmetic skills at an early stage of math acquisition.
Calcularis is an adaptive training software designed to support children in the math learning process. The program is based on a strong theoretical framework of numerical cognition and numerical development Triple-Code-Model, Dehaene, ; four-step developmental model, von Aster and Shalev, and recent neuroscientific findings. The aim of this evaluative study was to examine whether the training program Calcularis is effective in enhancing arithmetic skills and spatial number representation.
Our research design offers the possibility to compare the performance of the trained group with an untrained control group as well as to a group that received an alternative computerized training. The results are promising and showed significant improvements in half of the analyzed measures. Compared to the waiting group, the Calcularis group demonstrated larger improvements especially with regard to subtraction with moderate to large effect sizes in all measures. This finding is regarded as solid benefit of the training since subtraction is considered as a strong indicator for the development of spatial number representation Dehaene, Mental arithmetic like addition and in particular subtraction are facilitated by the growing mental number line.
The results demonstrated no effects with regard to arithmetic performance measures for addition. To explain this finding, the hierarchical structure of Calcularis has to be considered. The next higher number range 0—10, 0—20, 0— etc. Since the pre-test raw scores demonstrated that children performed better in addition than in subtraction, that the program provided in its adaptive design more training in subtraction leading to larger effects in subtraction than in addition.
Regarding spatial number processing two number line tasks with different number ranges 0—10, 0— were assessed to get more differentiating information of the improvements of spatial number representation since the program starts the training of mental number line tasks within the number range 0—10 and proceeds then to the number range 0— The Calcularis group showed stronger improvements in PAE and R 2 lin than the waiting group in the computerized number line test ranging from 0 to 10 with large effect size.
In the non-computerized number line test the Calcularis group demonstrated an increase in PAE within the number range 0—, but this increase was not significantly higher than in the waiting group. Furthermore, the results indicate that over all three groups children demonstrate already a rather good linear spatial number representation in the 0— number range. This result is in line with former studies e.
Due to the hierarchical structure of the program, children are presented with a series of games that train spatial representation of numbers within the number range 0—10 and only continue to the next higher number range 0— when a definite accuracy is established. Therefore, these findings may suggest that solid training effects were obtained with regard to the number range 0—10 within the rather short training duration of 6—8 weeks, while more training is needed to establish a significant benefit to the spatial number representation within the higher number range 0— Nevertheless, these results show the beneficial effect of the program on the construction and access to the mental number line leading to an improved spatial representation of numbers.
This result is especially relevant as the formation of a mental number line constitutes a vital step in the numerical development von Aster and Shalev, and studies demonstrated the significance of the mental number line for spatial number representation and arithmetic competencies Siegler and Ramani, ; Kucian et al. However, it has to be considered that this improvement on the number line task might not only be due to an improvement of this underlying mental number line. The results of recent studies Ashcraft and Moore, ; Hurst et al. Since studies that evaluate computerized training programs to enhance arithmetic performance or spatial number representation differ highly with regard to study samples e.
Training studies demonstrating a high degree of comparability to our study, such as Lenhard et al. Ise et al. Furthermore, our sample demonstrated a high variance in arithmetic performance with low to high math performance levels min: 1st percentile, max: 98th percentile. We expected the training effects therefore to be smaller than the effect sizes of studies with children at risk or with learning difficulties.
Further analyses are needed to investigate who responds to the training and who may not and what factors are influencing the observed improvements. Compared to the spelling training group, the Calcularis group demonstrated stronger improvements in subtraction.
In contrast to the findings of the Calcularis group compared to the waiting group, effect sizes are smaller. With regard to number line representation, children of the Calcularis group demonstrated improvements within the number range 0—10 PAE, R 2 lin and 0 to PAE with medium effect size compared to the spelling training group. Adequate comparisons to other studies are not possible, since most studies lack the comparison of training effects to a control group as well as a group of children receiving an alternative computerized training program.
However, two promising studies can be taken into account: Obersteiner et al. Obersteiner et al. Since the design does not include an untrained control group, differentiated comparisons to our study results are not possible. Fuchs et al. Also in this study, the study design has no untrained control group implemented. With regard to these studies, reported effect sizes of the present study are comparable. We expected smaller effect sizes for the comparison of the Calcularis with the spelling training group than for the comparison of the Calcularis with the waiting group.
We assume that different cognitive as well as affective factors might be influenced leading to an improvement in the arithmetical outcome measures in both training groups Calcularis and spelling training. However, the results indicated that children of the spelling training group did not increase more than the waiting group in almost all tasks, with the exception of the computer test subtraction. Nevertheless, we assume some relevant factors influencing training outcomes. First, the daily computerized training might have an effect on attention or working memory capacities.